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Battery driven Electric vehicle with regenerative Braking operation

Battery driven Electric vehicle with regenerative Braking operation


We'll delve into the simulation model we've developed for a battery-driven electric vehicle with regenerative braking operation. This MATLAB model showcases the dynamics of an electric vehicle's drivetrain, emphasizing the regenerative braking concept for energy recovery.

Simulation Model Overview:

The simulation model includes the following components:

  1. Battery: The primary energy storage unit with a voltage of 60V and a rated capacity of 400 Ah.

  2. Bi-directional DC-DC Converter: Controls the power flow between the battery and the DC motor. During motoring, power flows from the battery to the motor, and during regenerative braking, excess energy is sent back to the battery.

  3. DC Motor: Represents the electric vehicle's propulsion system. The DC motor is equipped with a speed control system for dynamic operation.

  4. Speed Control System: Utilizes a PID controller and a PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) generator to control the speed of the DC motor.

Operation Modes:

1. Motoring Operation:

  • The electric vehicle operates at a constant speed, and the battery supplies power to the DC motor.

2. Regenerative Braking Operation:

  • When the reference speed is reduced, simulating braking, the DC motor acts as a generator.

  • Excess energy generated during braking is fed back to the battery via the bi-directional DC-DC converter.

  • Battery State of Charge (SOC) increases during regenerative braking.

Key Parameters and Specifications:

  • Battery Voltage: 60V

  • Battery Capacity: 400 Ah

  • DC Motor Voltage: 240V

  • Rated Power: 5 HP

  • Load Torque: 10 Newton-meters

  • Speed Control: PID Controller and PWM Generator

  • Reference Speed: Varies during operation modes

Simulation Results:

Motoring Operation:

  • Smooth power flow from the battery to the DC motor.

  • Stable motor speed control with minimal variations.

Regenerative Braking Operation:

  • Energy regeneration observed as negative current and torque in the DC motor.

  • Battery current changes direction, indicating power flow from the DC motor back to the battery.

  • Battery SOC increases, showcasing the regenerative braking concept.


This simulation illustrates the dual operation of an electric vehicle, both during motoring and regenerative braking. The regenerative system efficiently recovers energy during braking, contributing to increased battery SOC.

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