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Fuel cell with Battery storage system In MATLAB

Fuel cell with Battery storage system In MATLAB

Welcome to another insightful session at LMS Solutions. Today, we are diving into the world of energy systems with a focus on a fuel cell integrated with a battery energy storage system, designed for a DC microgrid. This simulation model aims to demonstrate the seamless operation of a hybrid energy solution, balancing power generation, storage, and distribution.

System Components:

Our system comprises a Fuel Cell Stack, Battery Energy Storage System, Boost Converter, and Bidirectional Converter. Let's break down each component's role:

  1. Fuel Cell Stack: The heart of our system, generating power based on fuel and air pressure. The stack is designed to operate optimally at a nominal voltage of 24 volts, producing a maximum power output of 2000 Watts.

  2. Boost Converter: Connecting the fuel cell stack to the DC bus, this converter ensures that the generated power is efficiently matched to the load requirements. Its duty cycle is intelligently controlled using a Perturb and Observe (P&O) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm.

  3. Battery Energy Storage System: A 24-volt battery system with a rated capacity of 100Ah. The bidirectional converter manages the charging and discharging of the battery to maintain the DC bus voltage at 48 volts.

  4. Bidirectional Converter: Responsible for the interaction between the battery and the DC bus. It is controlled by a voltage control method to ensure the stability of the DC bus voltage.

Control Mechanisms:

  • P&O MPPT for Fuel Cell: Monitors fuel cell voltage and current to calculate power changes and adjust the boost converter's duty cycle. This ensures the fuel cell operates at its maximum power point under varying fuel and air pressures.

  • Voltage Control for Bidirectional Converter: Ensures the DC bus voltage is consistently maintained at 48 volts. The Proportional-Integral (PI) controller adjusts the bidirectional converter's duty cycle accordingly.

Simulation and Results:

The simulation introduces a step change in fuel and air pressure to showcase the system's response. Initially, the fuel cell generates surplus power, allowing the battery to charge. Upon a pressure change, the battery seamlessly takes over, preventing any disruption to the DC bus power supply.

Graphs and scopes illustrate the dynamic behavior of the fuel cell, battery, and load. The system demonstrates an elegant power balance, always ensuring power supply equals the load demand, whether sourced from the fuel cell or battery.


This simulation offers a glimpse into the potential of an integrated fuel cell and battery energy storage system in a DC microgrid. The robust control mechanisms ensure efficient power management, making it a promising solution for stable and sustainable energy supply.

Thank you for joining us in this exploration of advanced energy systems. Subscribe for more engaging content, and feel free to share your thoughts or questions. Until next time, happy simulating!

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