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PID speed controlled dc motor using arduino due board

PID speed controlled dc motor using arduino due board

In the world of electronics and robotics, precise control over motors is essential for a wide range of applications. Whether it's a robotics project, a conveyor belt system, or even a 3D printer, achieving the desired speed and accuracy of motion is crucial. One effective way to achieve this control is by implementing a PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) speed control system using an Arduino Due board. In this article, we will delve into the workings of PID control and explore how to implement it to regulate the speed of a DC motor.

Understanding PID Control

What is PID Control?

PID control is a closed-loop control system that stands for Proportional, Integral, and Derivative. It is widely used in engineering and automation to maintain a desired setpoint by continuously adjusting the control output based on the error between the desired setpoint and the actual process variable.

The Components of PID Control

  1. Proportional (P): This component generates an output value that is proportional to the current error value. It determines how much the motor should adjust its speed based on the present error.

  2. Integral (I): The integral component sums up the error values over time, helping to eliminate any steady-state error by continually adjusting the control output.

  3. Derivative (D): The derivative component predicts the future error based on its rate of change. It helps to prevent overshooting of the setpoint.

Building the Hardware

Components Required

Before we start building the PID speed control system, gather the following components:

  • Arduino Due board

  • DC motor

  • Motor driver module (H-bridge)

  • Encoder for speed feedback

  • Power supply

  • Jumper wires

Circuit Connection

  1. Connect the motor driver module to the Arduino Due board.

  2. Connect the encoder to the motor's shaft to measure its speed.

  3. Ensure proper power supply connections.

  4. Connect the Arduino to your computer for programming.

Fine-Tuning the PID Parameters

To achieve optimal performance, you may need to fine-tune the PID parameters (Kp, Ki, Kd) based on your specific motor and application. Experiment with different values and observe how the motor responds. The goal is to minimize overshoot and achieve a stable, accurate speed control.


Implementing a PID speed control system for a DC motor using an Arduino Due board opens up a world of possibilities for precise motion control in various projects. Whether you're working on robotics, automation, or any application requiring controlled motor speed, mastering PID control can significantly enhance your project's performance and accuracy.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is the advantage of using PID control for motor speed regulation?

PID control offers precise and dynamic control over motor speed, ensuring it reaches and maintains the desired setpoint with minimal error.

2. Can I implement PID control with other Arduino boards?

Yes, you can implement PID control with various Arduino boards, but the code and connections may vary depending on the board's capabilities and features.

3. How do I determine the appropriate PID constants for my motor and application?

You'll need to experiment and fine-tune the PID constants (Kp, Ki, Kd) based on your specific motor and application requirements. Start with conservative values and adjust them iteratively for optimal performance.

4. Is there a way to visualize the PID control system's performance?

Yes, you can monitor the system's performance by plotting the motor speed and PID output in real-time using software tools like Arduino's Serial Plotter or external software like MATLAB.

5. Where can I access more resources and tutorials on PID control with Arduino?

You can find a wealth of resources, tutorials, and Arduino community forums online to help you dive deeper into PID control and its applications with Arduino boards.

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