PSO Tuned PI Control of STATCOM for Voltage Regulation

We will be exploring Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) tuning of AC and DC voltage controllers in a Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) for enhancing power quality in power systems. Let's dive into the simulation model we've created for STATCOM integrated with this power system.

**Overview of the Simulation Model**

The power system operates at a voltage level of 15 kV. Here are the key components of our simulation setup:

Voltage Source: Operating at 15 kV with source resistance and inductance.

Feeders: A 21 km feeder and a 2 km feeder are present, with loads distributed between them.

Loads: A 3 MW real power load and a 0.2 MVAR capacitive load are placed between the feeders.

Voltage Conversion: At bus number 3, voltage is converted from 15 kV to 600 V, feeding into a 1 MW load and a variable load, both operating at 600 V and 60 Hz.

STATCOM: Connected at bus number 33 via a parallel transformer, incorporating a voltage source converter and a capacitor.

**STATCOM Control Strategy**

STATCOM is employed to maintain the load voltage constant, irrespective of fluctuations in the source voltage. This is achieved through:

DC Voltage Measurement: The DC link voltage of the STATCOM's capacitor.

Voltage and Current Measurement: Monitoring the voltage and current of the STATCOM for feedback control.

**Controllers in the STATCOM System**

AC Voltage Regulator: Maintains the load voltage by comparing the reference AC voltage with the actual voltage and adjusting through a PI controller.

DC Voltage Regulator: Ensures the DC link voltage is stable by comparing the reference DC voltage with the actual voltage.

**Tuning with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)**

The PSO algorithm optimizes the PI controller parameters (Kp and Ki) for both the AC and DC voltage regulators. The goal is to minimize the absolute error in voltage regulation. Hereâ€™s how it works:

Initialization: Generate an initial population of potential solutions.

Evaluation: Calculate the cost function (absolute error) for each solution.

Iteration: Update the velocity and position of particles to find the optimal solution over multiple iterations.

**Simulation Results**

After running the PSO algorithm, we obtain the optimal Kp and Ki values for both the AC and DC voltage controllers. These values ensure the STATCOM effectively mitigates voltage sags and swells in the system, maintaining the load voltage at a constant 1 pu.

Voltage Profiles: The simulation shows the load voltage remains stable despite fluctuations in the source voltage.

STATCOM Performance: The DC link voltage is consistently maintained around 2400 V, showcasing effective control by the PSO-tuned controllers.

Voltage Regulation: The load voltage is unaffected by variations in the source voltage, demonstrating the efficacy of the STATCOM in improving power quality.

**Conclusion**

In summary, the PSO algorithm effectively tunes the AC and DC voltage controllers of the STATCOM, ensuring stable load voltage and enhancing overall power quality. This method proves to be a robust solution for voltage regulation in power systems.

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